EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NATURALISTIC TEACHING EDUCATION PROGRAM DEVELOPED FOR PRE-SCHOOL TEACHERS IN TURKEY

Seçil ÇELİK, İbrahim Halil DİKEN, Hasan GÜRGÜR

Abstract


In the current study, face-to-face and web-based naturalistic teaching teacher education program for pre-school teachers (NTEPP), who are among the main stakeholders of inclusive education, was developed and examined its effectiveness on teacher outcomes (naturalistic teaching knowledge level, interactional behavior levels, and level of using naturalistic teaching strategies in the education processes). In addition, opinions the targeted teachers on the programs were gathered. A total of 30 teachers in the Face-to-Face (Experimental-1=14) and Web-based (Experimental-2=16) NTEPP groups participated in the study, which was designed with the "embedded design, one of the mixed research methods." In the study, face-to-face and web-based programs were found to be effective in increasing teachers' total scores for naturalistic teaching knowledge, interactional behaviors, and naturalistic teaching strategies used in leisure time and art activities. However, the results revealed that the face-to-face education program had a more permanent effect on the total scores for naturalistic teaching knowledge and naturalistic teaching strategies used in leisure time activities compared to the web-based program. Accordingly, it was determined that web-based programs, the contents of which were designed with visual and written materials, could be as effective as face-to-face programs on teachers' targeted performance levels. Finally, it was observed that teachers' opinions on the programs were quite positive.

Keywords: Inclusive education, inclusive pre-school education, naturalistic teaching approach, professional development.

REFERENCES

Aldemir, Ö. (2017). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerince sunulan gömülü öğretimin kaynaştırma öğrencilerinin hedef davranışlarını edinmelerindeki etkileri [The effects of embedded teaching provided by preschool teachers on the acquisition of target behaviors by inclusive students]. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation thesis). Anadolu University, Eskişehir.

Allen, K. D., & Cowan, R. J. (2008). Naturalistic teaching procedures. In J.K. Luiselli, D.C. Russo, W.P. Christian, & S.M. Wilczynski (Eds.), Effective practices for children with autism (pp. 213-240). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bailey, D. B., & Winton, P. J. (1987). Stability and change in parents’ expectations about mainstreaming. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 7, 73-88.

Boyd, B. A., Kucharczyk, S., & Wong, C. (2016). Implementing evidence-based practices in early childhood classroom settings. In B. Reichow, B.A. Boyd, E.E. Barton, & S.L. Odom (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood special education (pp. 335-347). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Bozarslan, B., & Batu, E. S. (2014). Özel anaokullarında çalışan eğiticilerin okul öncesi dönemde kaynaştırma ile ilgili görüş ve önerileri [Opinions and suggestions of educators working in private kindergartens about inclusion in the pre‑school period]. Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education, 14(2), 86-108.

Bruder, M. B. (2016). Personnel development practices in early childhood intervention. In B. Reichow, B. A. Boyd, E. E. Barton, & S. L. Odom (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood special education (pp. 289-333). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Charlop-Christy, M. H., LeBlanc, L. A., & Carpenter, M. H. (1999). Naturalistic Teaching strategies (NATS) to teach speech to children with autism: Historical perspective, development, and current practice. The California School Psychologist, 4(1), 30-46.

Christensen-Sandfort, R. J., & Whinnery, S. B. (2013). Impact of milieu teaching on communication skills of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 32(4), 211-222.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Cresswell, J. W. (2011). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Pearson Publishing.

Cresswell, J. W. (2014). A Concise introduction to mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Daymon, C., & Halloway, I. (2010). Qualitative research methods in public relations and marketing communications (2nd ed.).  Routledge Publishing.

Diamond, K. E., & LeFurgy, W. G. (1994). Attitudes of parents of preschool children toward integration. Early Education and Development, 5, 69-77.

Dick, K. J. (2017). Effects of a coaching intervention on teacher’s implementation of naturalistic strategies to promote communication in children. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation thesis). University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

Diken, Ö, Topbaş, S., & Diken, İ. H. (2009). Ebeveyn Davranışını Değerlendirme Ölçeği (EDDÖ) ile Çocuk Davranışını Değerlendirme Ölçeği (ÇDDÖ)’nin geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları [Validity and reliability studies of the Parental Behavior Rating Scale (PBRS) and the Child Behavior Rating Scale (CBRS)]. Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences Journal of Special Education, 10(2), 41-60.

Dunst, C. J., Raab, M., & Trivette, C. M. (2011). Characteristics of naturalistic language intervention strategies. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis, 5(3-4), 8-16.

Emam, M. M., & Mohamed, A. H. H. (2011). Preschool and primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education in Egypt: The role of experience and self-efficacy. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 976-985.

Frantz, R. J. (2017). Coaching teaching assistants to implement naturalistic behavıoral teaching strategies to enhance social communication skills during play in the preschool classroom. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation thesis). University of Oregon, United States.

Gianoumis, S., Seiverling, L., & Sturney, P. (2012). The effects of behavior skills training on correct teacher implementation of natural language paradigm teaching skills and child behavior. Behavioral Interventions, 27, 57-74.

Halle, J., Albert, C. L., & Anderson, S. L.  (1984). Natural environment language assessment and intervention with severely impaired preschoolers. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 4, 36-56.

Han, S. P. (2012). Professional development that works: Shifting preschool teachers’ beliefs and use of instructional strategies to promote children’s peer social competence. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 33, 251-268.

Harjusola-Webb, S. M., & Robbins, H. (2012). The effects of teacher-implemented naturalistic intervention on the communication of preschoolers with autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 32(2) 99-110.

Hemmeter, M. L., Snyder, P., Kinder, K., & Artman, K. (2011). Impact of performance feedback delivered via electronic mail on preschool teachers’ use of descriptive praise. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26, 96-109.

Huck, S. W. (2008). Reading statistics and research (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson. In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Series Eds.) & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol 1: Theoretical models of human development (6th ed., pp. 793-828.). New York Wiley.

Karaaslan, O., & Mahoney, G. (2013). Effectiveness of responsive teaching with children with Down syndrome. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 51, 458-469.

Karaaslan, O., Diken, I. H., & Mahoney, G. (2013). A randomized control study of responsive teaching with young Turkish children and their mothers. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 33, 18-27.

Karasar, N. (2011). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods] (22nd ed.). Ankara: Nobel Publishing.

Kasari, C., Freeman, S. F. N., Bauminger, N., & Alkin, M. C. (1999). Parental perspectives on inclusion: Effects of autism and Down syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 297-305.

Koegel, R. L., O’Dell, M. C., & Koegel, L. K. (1987). A natural language paradigm for teaching non-verbal autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 187-199.

Kohler, F. W., Anthony, L. J., Steighner, S. A., & Hoyson, M. (2001). Teaching social interaction skills in the integrated preschool: An examination of naturalistic tactics. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 21(2), 93-103.

Krischler, M., Pit-ten Cate, I. M., & Krolak-Schwerdt, S. (2018). Mixed stereotype content and attitudes toward students with special educational needs and their inclusion in regular schools in Luxembourg. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 75, 59-67.

Kruger, R. A., and Casey, M. A. (2000). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (3rd ed.). Thosand Oaks: Sage.

Malmskog, S., & McDonnell, A. P. (1999). Teacher-mediated facilitation of engagement by children with developmental delays in inclusive preschools. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 19(4), 213-216.

Marsicano, R. T., Morrison, J. Q., Moomaw, S. C., Fite, N. M., & Kluesener, C. M. (2015). Increasing math milieu teaching by varying levels of consultation support: An example of analyzing intervention strength. Journal of Behavioral Education, 24, 112-132.

McWilliam, R. A. (2016). Birth to three: Early intervention. In B. Reichow, B. A. Boyd, E. E. Barton, & S. L. Odom (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood special education (pp. 75-347). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Morse, J. M. (1991). Approaches to qualitative-quantitative methodological triangulation. Nursing Research, 40, 120-123.

National Autism Center [NAC]. (2015). Findings and conclusions: National standards project, phase 2. Randolph, MA: Author.

National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorder [NPDC]. (2014). What are evidence-based practices? Retrieved from https://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/evidence-based-practices.

Odom, S. L. (2016). The role of theory in early childhood special education and early intervention. In B. Reichow, B. A. Boyd, E. E. Barton, & S. L. Odom (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood special education (pp. 21-37). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Odom, S. L. (Ed.). (2002). Widening the circle: Including children with disabilities in preschool programs. New York, NY: Teacher College Press.

Odom, S. L., Peck, C. A., Hanson, M., Beckman, P. J., Kaiser, A. P., Lieber, J., … Schwartz, I. (1996). Inclusion of preschool children with disabilities: An ecological systems perspective. SRCD Social Policy Report, 10(2-3), 18-30.

Odom, S. L., Wolery, R., Leiber, J., and Hanson, M. J. (2002). Social policy and preschool inclusion. In S. L. Odom (Ed.), Widening the circle: Including children with disabilities in preschool programs (pp. 120-136). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2008). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon Publishing.

Pallant, J. (2011). SPSS survival manual. A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS (4th ed.). Allen & Unwin.

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thosand Oaks: Sage.

Pianta, R. C., Mashburn, A. J., Downer, J. T., Hamre, B. K., & Justice, L. (2008). Effects of web-mediated professional development resources on teacher-child interactions in pre-kindergarten classrooms. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23. 431-451.

Rakap, S. (2019). Re-visiting transition-based teaching: Impact of pre-service teacher's implementation on child outcomes. Learning and Instruction, 59, 54-64.

Rakap, S., & Parlak-Rakap, A. (2011). Effectiveness of embedded instruction in early childhood special education: A literature review. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 19(1), 79-96.

Rakap, S., & Rakap, S. (2014). Parent-implemented naturalistic language interventions for young children with disabilities: A systematic review of single-subject experimental research studies. Educational Research Review, 13, 35-51.

Rakap, S., Parlak-Rakap, A., & Aydın, B. (2016). Investigation and comparison of Turkish and American preschool teacher candidates’ attitudes towards inclusion of young children with disabilities, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20(11), 1223-1237.

Stahmer, A. C., Rieth, S., Lee, E., Reisinger, E. M., Mandell, D., & Connell, J. E. (2015). Training teachers to use evidence-based practices for autism: Examining procedural implementation fidelity. Psychology in the Schools, 52(2), 181-195.

Storie, S., Coogle, C. G., Rahn, N., & Ottley, J. R. (2017). Distance coaching for pre-service teachers: Impacts on children’s functional communication in inclusive preschool classrooms. Early Childhood Education Journal, 45, 735-743.

Sucuoǧlu, B., Bakkaloğlu, H., İşçen-Karasu, F., Demir, Ş., & Akalın, S. (2013). Inclusive preschool teachers: Their attitudes and knowledge about inclusion. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 5(2), 107-128.

Sucuoğlu, B., Bakkaloğlu, H., Akalın, S., Demir, Ş., & İşçen-Karasu, F. (2015). The effects of the preschool inclusion program on teacher outcomes in Turkey. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 36(4), 324-341.

Şeker, H., & Gençdoğan, B. (2006). Psikoloji ve eğitimde ölçme aracı geliştirme [Developing a measurement tool in psychology and education] (2. bs.). Ankara: Nobel Publishing.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Tate, T. L., Thompson, R. H., & McKerchar, P. M. (2005). Training teachers in an infant classroom to use embedded teaching strategies. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(3), 206-221.

Ünal, F. (2018). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerine gömülü öğretime dayalı web ortamında sunulan danışmanlığın öğretmenlerin gömülü öğretim becerileri ve öğrencilerinin hedef davranışları öğrenim düzeyi üzerindeki etkililiği [The effectiveness of counseling provided to pre-school teachers in the web environment based on embedded teaching on teachers' embedded teaching skills and students' levels of learning target behaviors] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation thesis). Anadolu University, Eskişehir.

Winton, P., Turnbull, A. P., Blacher, J. B., & Salkind, N. (1983). Mainstreaming in the kindergarten classroom: Perspectives of parents of handicapped and nonhandicapped children. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood, 6, 14-20.

Wolery, M., Anthony, L., Caldwell, N. K., Snyder, E. D., & Morgante, J. D. (2002). Embedding and distributing constant time delay in circle time and transitions. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22(1), 14-25.


Full Text: Full Text PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN: 1300-915X

Creative Commons Licenses

License

All articles published in International Online Journal of Primary Education's content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

Free counters!

(Counter start: 28.02.2021)