The purpose of this study is to research the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Designing my Future Scale developed by Di Maggio et al (2017) for the adolescents. Study had been carried out with 360 students in total who randomly selected from grades 9 and 10 from Namık Kemal High School, Bekir paşa High School and Erenköy High School at the Northern part of the Cyprus. The scale has been translated into Turkish by three experts who are advance in English language to provide the linguistic equivalence. Translation of the scale into Turkish is done by two persons who are advanced in English and a person whose mother language is English and advance in Turkish. Final version is drafted by two researchers by comparatively evaluating the developed scale. Before the exploratory factor analysis, normality test, Barlett’s tests for sphericity are carried out to see if the scale is factorable or not and then exploratory factor analysis are carried out by examining the Kaiser-Meğer-Olkin (KMO)  coefficient. To test the construct validity, structures are tested with confirmatory factor analysis. It is identified that original scale that has 19 items has 18 items and two factors structure in Turkish culture. Criterion-related validity is found related with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and Career Adaptability Scale in a positive way. For reliability analysis of the Designing my future Scale, Cronbach alpha test and split-half test and total item correlations are researched. Internal reliability coefficient is found 88 in total, future orientation dimension 87, resilience dimension 77 of the Designing my future Scale. Those findings show that Turkish version of the Designing my future Scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used career training studies and counselling services during adolescence period.

Keywords: Future designing, future orientation, resilience, life designing


Aytaç, M., & Öngen, B. (2012). Examination of construct validity of New Environmental Paradigm Scale with Confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of statisticians, 5, 14–22.

Atance, C. M., & O'Neill, D. K. (2001). Episodic future thinking. Trends in cognitive sciences5(12), 533-539. doi:10.1016/j.lmot.2005.02.003

Barber, L. K., Munz, D. C., Bagsby, P. G., & Grawitch, M. J. (2009). When does time perspective matter? Self-control as a moderator between time perspective and academic achievement. Personality and individual differences46(2), 250-253.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2009). Data analysis manual for social sciences. (10.print) Ankara: Pegem Academy

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Data analysis manual for social sciences: Statistics, research pattern, SPSS applications and interpretation. Ankara: Pegem Academy

Bluth K., Mullarkey M., & Lathren C. (2018). Self-Compassion: a potential path to adolescent resilience and positive exploration. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27, 3037–3047

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analys is for applied research. Guilford Press

Byrne, B. M., & Shavelson, R. J. (1996). On the structure of social self-concept for pre-, early, and late adolescents: a test of the Shavelson, Hubner, and Stanton (1976) model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 599

Cabras, C., & Mondo, M. (2018). Future orientation as a mediator between career adaptability and life satisfaction in university students. Journal of Career Development, 45(6) 597-609

Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: TheConnor Davidsonm Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18, 76–82

Crockett, L. J., Carlo, G., Wolff, J. M., & Hope, M. (2011). The role of pubertal development, emotional reactivity, and self-regulation in adolescent prosocial behaviours. Under Review.

Baruth, K. E., &Carroll, J. J. (2002). A formal assessment of resilience: The Baruth Protective Factors Inventory. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 58, 235–244.

Di Maggio, I., Ginevra, M. C., Nota, L., &Soresi, S. (2016). Development and validation of an instrument to assess future orientation and resilience in adolescence. Journal of adolescence, 51, 114–122.

Eryilmaz, A., Satici, B., & Deniz, M. (2020). A model of career adaptability for teachers: Emotional ıntelligence, goal setting, and striving for goals. International Online Journal of Primary Education9(1), 63-72.

Folke, C., Carpenter, S. R., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Chapin, T., & Rockstro¨m, J. (2010). Resilience thinking: Integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and Society, 15, 20.

L. Fusco, L. S. Sica1, A. Boiano, S. Esposito, L. Aleni Sestito (2018). Future orientation, resilience and vocational identity in southern Italian adolescents. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 19, 63–83

Gao, S. L., & Chan, K. L. (2015). Future orientation and school bullying among adolescents in rural China: The mediating role of school bonding. Sage Open5(1), 2158244014568463.

Greenberg, J. S. (2011). Comprehensive Stressth Management (12 Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gjesme, T. (1979). Future time orientation as a function of achievementmotives, ability, delay of gratification, andsex. TheJournal of Psychology, 101, 173-188

Friborg, O., Hjemdal, O., Rosenvinge, J. H., & Martinussen, M. (2003). A new rating scale for adult resilience: What are the central protective resources behind healthy adjustment? International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 12, 65–76.

Hatala, A. R, Pearl T., Naytowhow K. B, Judge A., Sjoblom E., & Liebenberg L (2017). I have strong hopes forthe future: Time orientations and resilience among Canadian indigenous youth. Qualitative Health Research, 27(9) 1330–1344

Husman, J. E., & Shell, D. F. (1996). Beliefs and perceptions about the future: A conceptualization and measurement of future time perspective. The XXVI International Congress of Psychology, Montreal, Canada.

Hu T, Zhang D, & Wang J. (2015). A meta-analysis of the trait resilience and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 18–27. DOI: 10.1016/ j. paid.2014.11.039

Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Lyu, H., & Huang, X. (2016). Development and validation of future time perspective scale for adolescents and young adults. Time & Society25(3), 533-551.

Mak, W. W. S., Ng, I. S. W., &Wong, C. C. Y. (2011). Resilience: Enhancing well-being through the positive cognitive triad. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 610–617

Maree J. G. (2011). Identifying and dealing with the adaptability needs of an unwed pregnant teenager. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 21(2), 211–228.

Masten, A. S., &Tellegen, A. (2012). Resilience in developmental psychopathology: Contributions of the project competence longitudinal study. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 345e361.

Murphey, D., Barry, M., & Vaughn, B. (2013). Positive mental health: resilience. Adolescent Health Highlight 3, 1–6

Nevılle, V. (2017).  The role of schools in fostering pupil resilience. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Canterbury Christ Church University for the degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology Salomons

Nurmi, J. E. (2004). Socialization and self-development: Channeling, selection, adjustment, and reflection. In R. M. Lerner, & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 85e124). New York: John Wiley.

Nuttin, J. R., & Lens, W. (1985). Future time perspective and motivation: Theory and research method. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Oshio, A., Kaneko, H., Nagamine, S., & Nakaya, M. (2003). Construct validity of the adolescent resilience scale. Psychological Reports, 93, 1217–1222

Peetsma, T., & Van der Veen, I. (2011). Relations between the development of future time perspective in three life domains, investment in learning, andacademicachievement. Learning and Instruction, 21(3), 481–494.

Santilli S., Ginevra M. C., Sgaramella T. M., Nota L., Ferrari L., & Salvatore Soresi S. (2015). Design My Future: An Instrument to Assess Future Orientation and Resilience. Journal of Career Assessment 1-15. DOI: 10.1177/1069072715621524

Sapienza, J. K., & Masten, A. S. (2011). Understanding and promoting resilience in children and youth. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 24, 267–273. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32834776a8

Savickas, M. L., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J. -P., Duarte, M. E., Guichard, J. (2009). Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in the 21st century. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(3), 239–250.

Savickas, M. L. (2015). Life-design counseling manual. Rootstown, OH:

Seginer, R., & Schlesinger, R. (1998). Adolescents’ future orientation in time and place: The case of the Israeli kibbutz. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 22(1), 151-167.

Seginer, R., & Shoyer, S. (2012). How mothers affect adolescents' future orientation: A two‐source analysis. Japanese Psychological Research54(3), 310-320.

Sestito Aleni, L., & Sica, L. S. (2010). Identity formation during the transition from high school to university: Processual dimensions and styles. Rassegna DiPsicologia, 3(3), 59–82

Sinclair, V. G., & Wallston, K. A. (2004). The development and psychometric evaluation of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Assessment11(1), 94-101.

Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Bernard, J. (2008). The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International journal of behavioral medicine, 15(3), 194-200.

Stoddard, S., Zimmerman, M., & Bauermeister, J. (2011). Thinking about the future as a way to succeed in the present: A longitudinal study of future orientation and violent behaviors amon gAfrican American youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 48, 238–246

Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant out comes of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 742

Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multi variate statsitics (4th ed.). New York: Harper Collins.

Tuckett, A. (2017). The rise and fall of life-wide learning for adults in England. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 36, 230–249.

Ungar, M. (2008). Resilience across cultures. British Journal of Social Work 38, 218-35.

Watson, M. B., & Stead, G. B. (2017). On overview of careertheory. In G.B. Stead & M. B. Watson (Eds.), Career psychology in the South African context (3rd ed., pp. 21–47). Pretoria, South Africa: Van Schaik.

Weil, L. G., Fleming, S. M., Dumontheil, I., Kilford, E. J., Weil, R. S., & Rees, G. (2013). The development of meta cognitive ability in adolescence. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(1), 264–271.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (2015). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. In Time perspective theory; review, research and application (pp. 17-55). Springer, Cham.



Full Text: Full Text PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Turkish International Journal of Special Education, and Guidance & Counselling (TIJSEG)

ISSN: 1300-7432

Creative Commons Licenses


All articles published in Turkish International Journal of Special Education and Guidance & Counselling (TIJSEG) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

Free counters!

(Counter start: 28.02.2021)